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Wednesday, January 18, 2012

Scientists: What you feel when you die? (near, death, experience, life, secret, experience, birth)


What a man feels when he died? When you realize that it leaves the mind? Whether there will be something unexpected in the moment when our lives come to an end? These questions plagued philosophers and scientists over the centuries but the topic continues to excite the death of every person and to this day.|

Death comes in various guises, but one way or another, this is usually an acute shortage of oxygen in the brain. Do people die of a heart attack, drowning or suffocation, ultimately, the reason for this - an acute shortage of oxygen in the brain.
If the flow of newly oxygenated blood to the head is stopped by any mechanism, a man about 10 seconds, losing consciousness. Death occurs within a few minutes. How exactly - it depends on the circumstances.

The Drowning


How fast people drown, is determined by several factors, including the ability to swim and water temperature. In the UK, where the water is cold, 55 percent of cases of drowning in open water is within 3 meters from the shore. Two-thirds of the victims - good swimmers. But a person can get into difficulties within seconds, says Mike Tipton, a physiologist and an expert from the University of Portsmouth in England.

As a rule, when the victim realizes that soon will disappear under water, and the panic starts thrashing on the surface. Fighting for the opportunity to breathe, they can not call for help. This stage lasts from 20 to 60 seconds.

When the victim eventually sink, they do not breathe as long as possible, typically 30 to 90 seconds. After that, they inhale some water, a person coughs and breathes more. The water in the lungs blocks gas exchange in thin tissues, there is a sudden involuntary contraction of muscles of larynx - a reflex called a laryngospasm. There is a feeling of tearing and burning in his chest, as the water passes through the airways. Then comes a sense of calm, which indicates the beginning of loss of consciousness from lack of oxygen, which ultimately lead to cardiac arrest and brain death.

Heart attack


The Hollywood heart attack - a sudden pain in his heart and an immediate drop, of course, happens in a few cases. But the typical myocardial infarction develops slowly, and begins with a mild discomfort.
The most common symptom - pain in the chest, which may be prolonged or appear and disappear. So the struggle of the heart muscle is shown for life and her death from deprivation of oxygen. The pain may be given to the jaw, neck, back, stomach and arms. Other symptoms: shortness of breath, nausea and cold sweats.

Most victims are in no hurry to ask for help, waiting an average of 2 to 6 hours. With women more difficult, as they often experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, smack in the jaw pain or nausea, and do not react to them. Procrastination can cost lives. Most people who die from heart attacks, just not got to the hospital. Often the actual cause of death - heart arrhythmia.

After about ten seconds after stopping the heart muscle a person loses consciousness, and a minute later he was dead. Hospitals with a defibrillator makes the heart beat, makes clearing the artery and injected drugs, that brings back to life.

Bleeding


How soon will come death from bleeding, depending on injuries, said John Kortbik the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada. People can die from blood loss for a few seconds if the aorta ruptured. This is the main blood vessel leading from the heart. The reasons are a serious fall or car accident.

Death can occur within hours if the damaged artery or other Vienna. In this case, people would have gone a few steps. The average adult has 5 liters of blood. The loss of one and a half liters of a feeling of weakness, thirst, anxiety and shortness of breath, and two - dizziness, confusion, a man falls into unconsciousness.

Death by fire


Hot smoke and flames scorch his eyebrows and hair and burn the throat and respiratory tract, making it impossible to breathe. Burns inflict intense pain through stimulation of the nerves of pain in the skin.
When the burn area increases, the sensitivity is somewhat reduced, but not completely. Third-degree burns do not hurt as much as second-degree wounds, as superficial nerves are destroyed. Some victims with severe burns reported that felt no pain while they were still in danger or involved in rescue of others. As soon as the adrenalin and shock gradually pass, quickly there is pain.

Most people who die in fires actually die from carbon monoxide poisoning with poisonous gases and oxygen deficiency. Someone just does not wake up.
The rate of occurrence of headache and drowsiness, unconsciousness depends on the size of fire and carbon monoxide concentration in the air.

Decapitation


Execution - one of the fastest and least painful way to die, if the executioner - skilled, his blade sharp and condemned sits still.
The most advanced technology decapitation - the guillotine. Officially adopted by the French government in 1792, she was recognized as a more humane than other methods of killing themselves.

Maybe it's really fast. But consciousness is not lost immediately after spinal cord severed. The study on rats in 1991 showed that the brain is still alive 2.7 seconds due to the consumption of oxygen from the blood in the head; for an equivalent number of people roughly equal to seven seconds. If a person fails falls under the guillotine, while feeling the pain may be increased. In 1541 an inexperienced man made a gash in his shoulder, not neck Margaret Paul, Countess of Salisbury. According to some reports, she leapt from the place of execution, and pursued the executioner, who struck her 11 times before she died.

Death by electric current


The most common cause of death from electric current - fibrillation leading to cardiac arrest. Unconsciousness usually follows after 10 seconds, says Richard Trohman, a cardiologist at the University of Chicago in Onslaught. Investigation of deaths from electric current in Montreal, Canada showed that 92 percent died of arrhythmia.
If the voltage is high, then unconsciousness comes almost immediately. The electric chair was supposed to cause immediate loss of consciousness and painless death due to current flow through the brain and heart.

Whether this is indeed the case, a moot point. John Viksvo, a biophysicist at the University of Nashville, Tennessee, says that the thick, insulating bones of the skull would prevent sufficient current flow through the brain, and the prisoners to die from the heat of the brain, or from suffocation due to paralysis of respiratory muscles.

Drops from the height


This is one of the fastest ways to die: the speed limit - about 200 kilometers per hour, achieved a fall from a height of 145 meters and above. The study of fatal crashes in Hamburg, Germany, found that 75 percent of the victims died within the first seconds or minutes after landing.

Causes of death depends on the place of landing and the human condition. People are unlikely to reach the hospital alive if they fall upside down. In 1981, analyzed 100 fatal jumps from the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. It has a height of 75 meters, velocity in a collision with water at 120 kilometers per hour. These are the two main causes instant death. As a result of the fall - a massive contusion of the lung, cardiac rupture or damage to major blood vessels of the lungs and broken ribs. Landing on his feet greatly reduces injuries and save lives.

Hanging


The method of suicide, and old-fashioned method of execution - death by asphyxiation; rope puts pressure on the trachea and the artery leading to the brain. It can be observed in unconsciousness within 10 seconds, but it will take more time, if the loop is wrong. Witnesses of public hangings often reported victims "dancing" in pain in the loop for a few minutes! In some cases - after 15 minutes.

In England in 1868 adopted the method of "long drop", providing a long rope. The victim reached during the hanging of speed, breaking her neck.

Lethal injection


Lethal injection was designed in Oklahoma in 1977 as a humane alternative to the electric chair. The state medical examiner and chairman of the anesthesiologist agreed to the introduction of the three drugs almost immediately. First introduced anesthetic thiopental to avoid any feelings of pain, then - the paralytic agent pantsuronium to stop breathing. Finally, potassium chloride stops the heart almost immediately.

Each drug is supposed to be injected into lethal dose, the excess to ensure a quick and humane death. However, witnesses reported convulsions and try to convict sit during the procedure, that is, the administration of drugs does not always produce the desired result.

Explosive decompression


Death due to vacuum exposure occurs when the vestibule depressurization or break a suit.
When the external air pressure suddenly drops, the air in the lungs expands, tearing the delicate tissues involved in gas exchange. The situation is aggravated if the victim would forget to breathe decompression or tries to hold his breath. Oxygen begins to leave the blood and lungs.

Experiments on dogs in the 1950s showed that 30 to 40 seconds after the pressure drop their bodies began to swell, although the skin prevents "tearing". First, the heartbeat quickens, then sharply decreases. Bubbles of water vapor formed in the blood and travel through the entire circulatory system, hampering the flow of blood. A minute later the blood ceases to effectively participate in gas exchange.

People who survived after decompression accidents - mostly pilots, whose aircraft depressurize. They talked about sharp chest pain and an inability to breathe. After about 15 seconds, they lost consciousness. 


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